The Seven Major Consortia (in chronological order)

  1. Synaptic Alliance[1] [2]

  • Summary: The Synaptic Health Alliance was created to explore the use of blockchain technology in tackling the challenge of accurate and efficient provider data management and sharing. Currently enterprise stakeholders typically collect demographic data in separate, independently organized systems. A review completed by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services determined that 52% of provider directory locations listed had a least one inaccuracy. Synaptics’ pilot project allows members to actively share data with the aim of reducing administrative burdens and inaccuracies, resulting in cost savings for payers.
  • Business area: Physician Identity
  • Design Pattern: Data synchronization
  • Use Cases: Provider directory data
  • Protocol: Quorum (fork of Ethereum)
Who●Healthcare Companies:
○ Aetna
○ Ascension
○ Humana
○ Multiplan
○ Quest
○ United Healthcare
●Business & Technical Partners:
○ Optum
○ Cognizant
WhatThe intent of Synaptic is to create a provider data exchange—a cooperatively owned, synchronized distributed ledger to collect and share changes to provider data, starting with demographics. This collective source of data aims to streamline administrative inefficiencies, reduce costs, and relieve friction between providers and multiple payers.
WhenApril 2018
WhereUS
WhyToday, managed care organizations, health systems, physicians, diagnostic information service providers and other healthcare stakeholders typically collect provider demographic data in separate IT systems maintained by each organization independently. This promotes vast inefficiencies and duplication of efforts, while also potentially reducing data quality.

  1. Professional Credentials Exchange (aka “ProCredEx” or “PCX”)[3]

    • Summary: Practitioner credentialing is a mandated, and largely nonstandard, process to ensure that a physician can competently deliver patient care within a clinical setting. The inefficiencies associated with the current credentialing process directly impacts recruitment, revenue cycle, cost, and quality of care. ProCredEx and its partners offer a solution to these inefficient processes by creating a largely scalable and secure exchange which provides members access to verified credentials and a means to actively contribute relevant information to other members of the exchange. This solution will eliminate redundant work, increase coordination and concurrency of available data, and eliminate credentialing-oriented impedances in new channels of care delivery.
    • Business area: Physician Identity
    • Design pattern: Asset exchange
    • Protocol: Not announced
Who●Healthcare companies
○ Wellcare
○ Spectrum Health
○ Texas Hospital Association
○ The Hardenbergh Group
○ Healthlink Dimensions
○ Anthem National Government Services
○ Jackson Health
●Technical & Business Support
○ Accenture
○ Hashed Health
What● ProCredEx forms an exchange providing members with access to verified credentials and a means to actively contribute information for other members of the exchange to acquire. Specific artifacts and validations checks can be independently customized for various types of employees that are required to be credentialed.
● At-home model enabling curators to create value from an idle data resource.
WhenNovember 8, 2018
WhereUS
WhyWithin the private sector, physicians must be credentialed by every payer and health system contracted for reimbursement by that organization. This redundant process, as well as additional credentialing processes for volunteer organizations, the military, and Medicare/Medicaid results in vast inefficiencies due to physicians being required to supply credentialing information to 12-25+ independent organizations.

The onboarding and credentialing process for a newly hired practitioner (including recruitment, appointment, and completion of payer enrollment) often takes 4-6 months. These delays result in a daily net forfeiture of $7,500 to $9,000 for the hospital.

Credentialing is a significant, often hidden driver of the cost of care in the US. It must be re-performed every two years for care delivery organizations. Delays and inefficiencies present in these processes directly impact recruitment, access, revenue cycle, cost, and quality of care.

  1. Health Utility Network [4]

    • Summary: Aetna, Anthem, Health Care Service Corporation, IBM, PNC, Cigna and Sentara are collaborating to create a blockchain backed network to improve transparency and interoperability among participants in the healthcare industry. IBM and its partners plan to reduce administrative errors and friction through the application of a blockchain. Healthcare information will be exchanged more securely and efficiently which should help enhance patient care and reduce unnecessary costs and redundant information transfer.
    • Business area: yet to be announced
    • Design pattern: yet to be announced
    • Protocol: Hyperledger Fabric
Who●Healthcare companies
○ Aetna
○ Anthem
○ Health Care Service Corporation
○ PNC Bank
○ Cigna
○ Sentara
●Technology & Services
○ IBM
What● Governance / network first
● Ideas include efficient claims and payment processing, secure and frictionless information exchanges, provider identity, value-based contracting
WhenJanuary 24, 2019
WhereUS
WhyThis consortium represents a collection of companies who have internal blockchain expertise and interest in a number of use cases. The network and their technology partner, IBM, are convening to accelerate the adoption of undisclosed use cases.

Lori Steele (IBM): “Blockchain’s unique attributes make it suitable for large networks of member to quickly exchange sensitive data in a permissioned, controlled, and transparent way.”

Mark Boxer (Cigna): “We want to drive towards elements called ‘value based contracts,’ which provide the ability to have full transparency and visibility across the ecosystem.”

  1. Coalesce Health Alliance[5] [6]

    • Summary: Working specifically with Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts and Michigan along with Horizon HealthCare Services (BCBS New Jersey), Coalesce is utilizing blockchain technology to enable business networks and collaborative information exchanges in the healthcare industry. The Alpha Pilot project is a blockchain solution in a cloud environment which addresses the challenges of managing member accumulations, specifically problems pertaining to inaccurately identifying members or working with inconsistent or incomplete data. Their work with leveraging blockchain in partnership with Blue plans will ultimately increase operational efficiencies and improve the member experience.
    • Business area: accumulators?
    • Design pattern: yet to be announced
    • Protocol: yet to be announced
Who● NASCO
● Express Scripts
What● The Alpha Pilot project addresses the challenges health plans experience in managing member accumulations (inability to accurately identify members across entities, working with incomplete data and inconsistent integration platforms) which will ultimately increase operational efficiencies
WhenApril 17, 2019
WhereUS
WhyCoalesce Health Alliance is initially focused on evaluating the application of blockchain to improve the efficiency and accuracy of member healthcare data exchanges across the Blue Cross Blue Shield ecosystem

  1. RemediChain [7] [8]

    • Summary: RemediChain’s multistate pilot will use blockchain enabled data-tracking to target intra- and inter-health system medication transport and usage in NC, IN, and TN. This increased level of supply monitoring will enhance quality control of medicine, provide data for a more targeted inventory, along with streamline recall management. Good Shepherd Pharmacy and its associated RemediChain project will apply this blockchain solution to connecting patients who are unable to afford specialty and rare disease medications with donated medications, while also assuring patients, regulators, and providers of the origin and quality of the donated medications.
    • Business area: pharma track & trace
    • Design pattern: multi party business process coordination
    • Protocol: fork of Ethereum
Who●Healthcare Customers
○ Indiana University Health
○ WakeMed Health and Hospitals
●Technical & Business Partners
○ Good Shepherd Pharmacy
○ Global Health Policy Institute
○ Temptime/Zebra
○ Center for Supply Chain Studies
○ FedEx Institute of Technology at the University of Memphis
○ Lipscomb University
What● The RemediChain application aims to use blockchain to provide “end-to-end” traceability for unused drugs from its donor point of origin to the end-user of the donated medication. Initially, the consortium is focused specifically on oral chemotherapy drugs which cost an estimated $30,000 to $45,000 for a 30-day supply. As part of the pilot, WakeMed and Indiana University Health will implement the blockchain technology to track specialty medicines across provider locations within their networks, as well as transfers to other provider networks, as is commonly done to address regional inventory shortages. Good Shepherd Pharmacy and its associated RemediChain project will apply the solution to medicine transfers to connect patients unable to afford specialty and rare disease medications with donated medications, all while assuring patients, regulators and providers of the origin and quality of the donated medicines.
WhenApril 25, 2019
WhereUS
WhyThe organizations are focused on improving supply monitoring to enhance quality control of medicine, provide data for more targeted inventory and recall management and save lives, the organization said in a press release.

  1. MediLedger [9]

    • Summary: Beginning November 27th, 2019, the US pharmaceutical industry will be bound by new regulations outlined by the Drug Supply Chain Security Act. The MediLedger Project is a network which hopes to meet the demands of this new regulation by combining a look-up directory along with a permissioned messaging network which will allow companies to securely request and respond to product identifier verification requests. Companies must be authorized before they become members of the network and have access to the blockchain backed look-up directory.
    • Business area: pharma track & trace
    • Design pattern: multi party business process coordination
    • Protocol: Ethereum (Parity Client using zk-SNARKS for privacy)
Who●Healthcare (Life Sciences) Companies
○ AmerisourceBergen
○ Pfizer
○ Gilead
○ Genentech
○ McKesson
●Technical & Business Partners
○ PWC
○ Chronicled
What● The MediLedger Network aims to track an immutable record of pharma supply chain transactional data and ease the certification of raw materials and drugs. The network combines a look-up directory accessed through a blockchain with a permissioned messaging network which enables companies to securely request and respond to product ID verification requests. Only authorized companies can put their products in the directory.
WhenMay 2, 2019
WhereUS
WhyBeginning 11/27/2019, US pharma industry will be bound by increasing regulation by the DSCSA. The MediLedger Network aims to reduce redundancies and inefficiencies associated with DSCSA compliance by enabling an industry-wide, interoperable, cooperative framework to confidentially track drugs through the supply chain.

  1. Melloddy [10] [11]

    • Summary: Melloddy is a new consortium of pharmaceutical, technology, and academic partners whose work will be aimed to use machine learning methods on the chemical libraries of 10 pharmaceutical companies to determine which compounds could be promising in the later stages of drug discovery and development. The project utilizes an unprecedented amount of competitive data. The participants hope this model will accelerate drug discovery while protecting the intellectual property rights of the consortium contributors.
    • Business area: Drug Discovery
    • Design pattern: Federated learning
    • Protocol: yet to be announced
Who●Healthcare (Life Sciences) Companies
○ Amgen
○ Astellas
○ AstraZeneca
○ Bayer
○ Boehringer Ingelheim
○ GSK
○ Janssen Pharmaceutical NV
○ Merck KgaA
○ Novartis
○ Institut de Recherches Servier
●Technical / Business / Academic Partners
○ KU Leuven
○ Budapesti Muszaki es Gazdasagtudomanyi Egyetem
○ Owkin
○ Substra Foundation
○ Loodse
○ Iktos
○ NVIDIA
What● Melloddy seeks to accelerate drug discovery using a combination of machine learning and blockchain
● Using ML models across multiple at-home datasets to enable federated learning
● Attempts to prevent leakage of proprietary information while enabling predictive performance across many data sets.
● At-home model that enables the drug discovery market.
WhenJune 1, 2019
WhereSwitzerland
WhyUses AI in order to accelerate drug discovery by leveraging the world’s largest collection of small molecules with known biochemical or cellular activity to enable more accurate predictive models.